Thirteen and a Half Degrees North Latitude to Santa Claus

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But should they prefer to remove, and actually remove, then the United States, in lieu of such reservations, will pay for the same, at the rate of one dollar and a half per acre; the same to be paid in ten equal, annual instalments, to commence after the period of the ratification of this treaty, if, at that time, they shall have removed. It is agreed, that the United States, as further consideration, will pay to said Nation of Indians, fifteen thousand dollars annually, for twenty years; the first payment to be made after their removal shall take place, and they be settled at their new homes, West of the Mississippi.

Seeley Senr. They shall be entitled to the same in fee simple, to be resided upon; or, if they prefer it, they may, with the consent of the President, sell and convey the same, in fee.

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And it is further agreed, that upon the same terms and conditions, a reservation of two sections, to be surveyed together, and to include the improvements of the party entitled, shall and the same is hereby declared to be, secured to Capt. No person receiving a special reservation, shall be entitled to claim any further reservation, under the provisions of the fourth article of this treaty.

At the request of the delegation, it is agreed that Levi Colbert shall have an additional section of land, to that granted him in the 6th article, to be located where he may prefer, and subject to the conditions contained in said sixth article. All the reservations made by this treaty, shall be in sections, half sections, or quarter sections, agreeably to the legal surveys made, and shall include the present houses and improvements of the reservees, as nearly as may be. It is agreed that the Chickasaw people, in removing to their new homes, shall go there at the expense of the United States; and that when they shall have arrived at their new homes, the United States will furnish to each one, for the space of one year, meat and corn rations, for himself and his family; that thereby, time may be afforded to clear the ground, and prepare a crop.

And the better to effect this object, it is agreed that one-half the nation shall remove in the fall of , and the other half the following fall. The supplies to be furnished by the United States, are to be delivered at one or two places in the nation, which shall be as convenient to the body of the people as may be practicable; having regard to the position or places, where the supplies may be had or deposited, with the greatest convenience, and least expense to the United States. The United States, at the time of the removal of each portion of the nation, at the valuation of some respectable person, to be appointed by the President, agree to purchase all the stock they may desire to part with, except horses , and to pay them therefor, at their new homes, as early as practicable after the ratification of this treaty.

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Also, to receive their agricultural and farming utencils, and to furnish them, at the West, with axes, hoes and ploughs, suited to their wants respectively. Also, to furnish each family with a spinning wheel and cards, and a loom to every six families.

New Hampshire

A council house, and two houses of public worship, which may be used for the purposes of schools, shall be built by the United States; and the sum of four thousand dollars shall be appropriated for that purpose. Also, one blacksmith, and no more, shall be employed at the expense of the government, for twenty years, for the use of the Indians; and a mill-wright for five years, to aid them in erecting their saw and grist-mills.

The sum of two thousand dollars a year, shall be paid for ten years, for the purpose of employing suitable teachers of the Christian religion, and superintending common schools in the nation. And it is further consented, that twenty Chickasaw boys of promise, from time to time, for the period of twenty years, shall be selected from the nation by the chiefs, to be educated within the States at the expense of the United States, under the direction of the Secretary of War.

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We are delighted that this recognition has raised the profile of the Canberra Marathon and Australian running as a whole. While innovative management by the CRT Entities has allowed some accommodation for values outside of hydropower and flood control, solving emerging issues will be challenging within the existing CRT framework. But during the last five years, periods of dissonance between the governments of BC and Canada caused much of the threeyear delay between the signing of the CRT in by the federal governments of the United States and Canada and its ratification in Archived from the original on August 30, In the year almost the whole German population removed from Halifax to Lunenburg, and Mr. This one. Cook was also removed.

A desire having been expressed by Levi Colbert, that two of his younger sons, Abijah Jackson Colbert, and Andrew Morgan Colbert, aged seven and five years, might be educated under the direction and care of the President of the United States; and George Colbert having also expressed a wish that his grand-son, Andrew Frazier, aged about twelve years, might have a similar attention: It is consented, that at a proper age, as far as they may be found to have capacity, they shall receive a liberal education, at the expense of the United States, under the direction and control of the President.

The United States shall have authority, after the ratification of this treaty by the Senate, to survey and prepare the country for sale; but no sale shall take place before the fall of , or until they shall remove. And that every clause and article herein contained may be strictfully fulfilled; it is stipulated and agreed, that the lands herein ceded shall be, and the same are hereby pledged, for the payment of the several sums which are secured and directed to be paid, under the several provisions of this treaty.

The United States, and the Chickasaw nation of Indians herein stipulate, that perpetual peace, and unaltered and lasting friendship, shall be maintained between them. It is agreed, that the President of the United States will use his good offices, and kind mediation, and make a request of the governor and legislature of the State of Mississippi, not to extend their laws over the Chickasaws; or to suspend their operation, until they shall have time to remove, as limited in this treaty.

In witness of all and every thing herein determined, between the United States, and the delegation representing the whole Chickasaw nation, the parties have hereunto set their hands and seals, at Franklin, Tennessee, within the United States, this thirty-first day of August, one thousand, eight hundred and thirty. Jn H Eaton, Secr. Levi Colbert, his x mark. George Colbert, his x mark. James Colbert, his x mark. There is a fine state library at Concord and excellent libraries in all the cities.

Every town of any importance either has its own library or is in easy reach of excellent library accommodations. State Papers, XXV, Forming a partnership with some Plymouth merchants, he came over in and settled south of the Piscataqua, calling the place Little Harbour.


Nothing is known of this settlement, except that about three years afterwards Thomson moved to an island in Boston Harbour which still bears his name. It is claimed with reason that at about the same time William and Edward Hilton settled a few miles further up the Piscataqua at what was called Hilton's Point, or Northam, now Dover, thought the formal grant of their patent was Belknap, "Hist. Also, that all these men were sent by John Mason, Ferdinando Gorgos, and a company of English merchants.

In , , and , Sir Ferdinando Gorges, an officer in the English navy, and Captain John Mason, a London merchant, afterward a naval officer and Governor of Newfoundland, both royal favourites, procured various grants of what is now New Hampshire and a great deal more, from the Plymouth Company, organized by James I "for the planting, ruling, and governing of New England", and apparently under some arrangement with Thomson and others interested sent over some eighty men and women duly supplied and furnished, by whom settlements were made on both sides of the Piscataqua near its mouth.

Building a house, called Mason Hall, they began salt works, calling the settlement Strawberry Bank; while at Newitchwannock, now South Berwick, Maine , they built a saw mill. Things went along passably well till Mason died in , after which the houses and cattle were taken to satisfy the wages and claims of his servants. Neither he nor Gorges seem to have reaped any profit from their investment. The claims of the Mason heirs were a bone of contention till , when a settlement was effected.

On two different occasions they delivered the colony from Massachusetts's sway on account of the influence the claimants had first with Charles II in and again with William III in The settlements spread slowly, the people coming chiefly from Hampshire County, where Mason had held a lucrative office under the crown and from which he had named the plantation "New Hampshire". In John Wheelwright, a preacher, who had been disfranchised and banished from Boston for his religious opinions, settled, with some adherents, at Squamscott Falls, as being outside the Massachusetts patent, calling the place Exeter, and here they organized a local government, creating three magistrates, the laws to be made by the townsmen in public assembly, with the assent of the magistrates.

The settlements at Dover and Strawberry Bank Portsmouth soon followed the example of Exeter and established local self-government. It is important to note that Mason, Gorges, Thomson, the Hiltons, and the wealthy merchants associated with them, were devoted supporters of the Church of England. The powerful Massachusetts Bay Colony, then the very essence of intense Puritanism , soon turned its attention to the struggling Anglican colonies on its northern borders, which it determined to seize.

Proceeding with consummate craft and skill, they laid out the town of Hampton, clearly within the Mason patent, and settled it with people from Norfolk Belknap, 1, 38 , over the Mason protest. Jealousies, fears, and factions arose between the old settlers and the new comers. Then emissaries from the Bay appeared at the proper time on the Piscataqua Fry, 37 , "to understand the minds of the people and to prepare them", and their report was entirely satisfactory to their principals.

They then got the purchasers of the Hilton patent to put it solemnly under the government of Massachuestts. And now, the time being ripe, and England too distracted with her own internal troubles to interfere, Massachusetts assumed jurisdiction over the New Hampshire settlements October, Very soon after Puritans appeared among the settlers and obtained possession of the principal offices, dividing among themselves a goodly share of the common lands Fry, They silenced the Anglican minister at Portsmouth , seized the church, parsonage, and the fifty acres of glebe that had been granted that church by Governor Williams and the people, and in due time turned them over to a Puritan minister.

Minister Wheelwright left Exeter and went to Maine.

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For nearly one hundred years, or until the capture of Quebec by Wolfe and the subsequent surrender of Canada , the development of New Hampshire was seriously impaired by the Indian wars , her territory being not only the borderland, but also in the war-path of the Indians from Canada to the New England settlements. These wars seem to have been occasioned by the misdeed aggression, or treachery of the whites Belknap, "Hist.

There is no doubt that encroachments on their lands and fraud in trade gave sufficient grounds for a quarrel and kept up jealousy and fear Belknap, I, And the same writer gives the eastern settlers of New England but a poor character for religion and deems their conduct unattractive to the Indians Hist. Such would surely be the drowning by some rascals of the Saco chief Squando's babe; while the treachery of Major Waldron in in betraying them in time of peace in his own home, and consigning two hundred of them to slavery or death, was never forgotten nor forgiven Belknap, I, , and brought untold horrors on the people till it was avenged in his blood on his own hearth-stone in the Indian attack on Dover in But through war or peace the population steadily increased.

Estimated at between and in , it was placed at 52, in , and in at 83, The settlers, of course, were mainly English, but about a colony of one hundred families of Ulster Protestants came from Ireland to Massachusetts and after many trials a number of them settled on a tract in New Hampshire above Haverhill, known as Nutfield, where they established the towns of Londonderry and Derry; the rest settling in different parts of the country.

This hardy and industrious element brought with it to New Hampshire the potato. After the capture of Quebec the settlements increased more rapidly, soon clashing in the west with New York's claims, till the boundary was settled by royal decree in None of the thirteen colonies was better satisfied with British rule than New Hampshire. She had an extremely popular governor and had received fair treatment from the home government.

It is true that patriots took alarm at the assumption of power to tax the people without their consent, and at the severity exercised towards the neighbouring sister colony; and took due precautions to consult for the common safety; also, that when the king and council prohibited the exportation of powder and military stores to America, the citizens, in December, , quietly removed one hundred barrels of powder, the light cannon, small arms, and military stores from Fort William and Mary in Portsmouth harbour to more convenient places.

The provincial convention, early in , in forming a provisional government, publicly declared they had been happy under British rule and would rejoice if a reconciliation could be effected, but when they saw the home government persevere in its design of oppression, the Assembly at once 15 June, instructed its delegates at Philadelphia to join in declaring the thirteen colonies independent, and pledged their lives and fortunes thereto.

This pledge was well redeemed through the war from Bunker Hill to Bennington and Yorktown, and New Hampshire's soldiers under Stark and Sullivan, Scammell and Cilley, and others, did their full part and more; while the hardy sailors of Portsmouth and its vicinity did gallant service in the navy under Paul Jones, whose ship, "The Ranger", was built and fitted out at that port.

After careful consideration New Hampshire adopted the Constitution, 21 June, , being the ninth state to do so; thus making the number required to give it effect. During the war of the Rebellion, notwithstanding considerable difference of party opinion, the state supported Lincoln and contributed its full share of men to the Union army and navy. In the book of the Puritan the word "toleration" was not written, or only mentioned to be denied and scoffed at by the gravest and most venerable of their teachers and upon the most solemn occasions.

President Oakes calls toleration "The first burn of all abominations" Election Sermon, , "Having its origin," says Shepherd, "with the devil " Election Sermon, As Dr. Belknap sums it up, "Liberty of conscience and toleration were offensive terms and they who used them were supposed to be the enemies of religion and government" Hist. The rigidity with which this idea was carried out towards their brethren who differed with them is shown in the case of Roger Williams, and the people of Salem, who were disfranchised and their property rights withheld for remonstrating in favour of liberty of conscience ; Williams escaping only by flight to Narragansett Bay; and in multitudes of other instances, as well as in their merciless persecution of the Quakers , extending to imprisonment , scourging, mutilation, and death; as witness their laws from to , and the barbarities perpetrated under them.

It was during Massachusetts' usurpation in New Hampshire, and probably by one of the parties she colonized on the Hilton Patent, the notorious Richard Waldron, that the three Quakers , Anna Coleman, Mary Tomkins, and Alice Ambrose were ordered to be whipped, like infamous criminals, from Dover through eleven towns, and to the disgrace of the colony, the sentence was executed as far as the Massachusetts line; where the victims were rescued and set free by some ruse of the Cavalier Doctor Barefoot, and some friends, as the story goes, Waldron's warrant running in Massachusetts also.

Such being their attitude towards their Protestant brethren, it is easy to understand why so few Catholics appear among the early settlers; especially as they were banned by the charter of the Plymouth Council, which excluded from New England all who had not taken the Oath of Supremacy.

Catholics were denied the right of freemen under the Royal Commission of , which required the Oath of Supremacy and this was endorsed by the General Assembly held at Portsmouth the following year; and in an odious and insulting test-oath was imposed on the people under pain of fine or imprisonment. The proscription of Catholics continued to disfigure the state constitution even after the adoption of the federal constitution.

The State Constitutional Convention of refused to amend the constitution of , by abolishing the religious test that excluded Catholics from the office of governor, councillor, state senator, and representative, the vote standing thirty yeas to fifty-one nays. It is significant that the names of those voting nay are not entered on the record Journal, p. The convention of abolished all religious disqualifications, and this was adopted by the people except as to one clause empowering towns, parishes , etc.

Thc convention of voted to abolish this distinction; but this vote also failed of ratification, and the discrimination still remains a blot on the fairest and first of all written American state constitutions. First Catholic Missions In Rev. Daniel Barber of Claremont, N.

Afterwards, by agreement between himself and his wife, they separated. He and his son entered the Jesuits , and Mrs. Barber and her four daughters entered convents. Father Barber was ordained in and sent to Claremont, where he built a small brick church and academy, still standing; and according to Bishop Fenwick in there were about one hundred and fifty persons , almost all converts, attending it. The following year Father Barber was sent by Bishop Fenwick to visit the eastern part of the diocese and found one hundred Catholics in Dover, eager for a church.