With the inclusion of the predecessor and successor cultures - Early Harappan and Late Harappan, respectively - the entire Indus Valley Civilization may be taken to have lasted from the 33rd to the 14th centuries BCE.
While others civilizations were devoting huge amounts of time and resources to the rich, the supernatural, and the dead, Indus Valley inhabitants were taking a practical approach to supporting the common, secular, living people. In general, the area where the Indus valley cities developed is arid, and one can surmise that urban development took place along a river that flew through a virtual desert. The geography of the Indus Valley put the civilizations that arose there in a highly similar situation to those in Egypt and Peru, with rich agricultural lands being surrounded by highlands, desert, and ocean.
The Indus Valley people do not appear to have been in possession of the horse: there is no osteological evidence of horse remains in the Indian sub-continent before 2, BCE, when the Aryans first came to India, and on Harappan seals and terracotta figures, horses do not appear. World-wide comparisons: Aryans vs.
Indus Valley people; Israelites non-Aryans vs. Canaanites; Earliest Greeks Aryans vs. Minoans on Crete; Sky-gods and war-gods vs. Fertility gods and goddesses. A few thousand seals have been discovered in Indus Valley cities, showing some pictographs: too few in number for the language to have been ideographic, and too many for the language to have been phonetic.
The first attacks on outlying villages by Aryans appear to have taken place around 2, BCE near Baluchistan, and of the major cities, at least Harappa was quite likely over-run by the Aryans. Compare the civilizations of Mesopotamia and the Indus River Valley.
It is suggested that the language was spoken in the 4th millennium BCE, and started disintegrating into various branches around 3rd millennium BCE. According to Krishnamurti, Proto-Dravidian may have been spoken in the Indus civilization, suggesting a "tentative date of Proto-Dravidian around the early part of the third millennium. The Dravidian influence is also noted to have been found in ancient civilisations of India.
According to Zvelebil, "several scholars have demonstrated that pre-Indo-Aryan and pre-Dravidian bilingualism in India provided conditions for the far-reaching influence of Dravidian on the Indo-Aryan tongues in the spheres of phonology, syntax and vocabulary. Over many centuries a fusion of Aryan and Dravidian occurred, a complex process that historians have labeled the Indo-Aryan synthesis. Bloch and M. Witzel believe that the Indo-Aryans moved into an already Dravidian speaking area after the oldest parts of the Rig Veda were already composed.
The modern word Dravidian is devoid of any ethnic significance, and is only used to classify a linguistic family of the referred group. Island script and its relation with other scripts. Diogenes System of weights at Mohenjo-daro [1—11]. In: Marshall a: n, and Mackay , — Hemphill, Brian E. Lukacs and K. The New Review, 4: Xaviers College Magazine, The New Indian Antiquary, 1: Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society, Coronation Souvenir, Bombay: Karnataka Historical Review, 4: Revista Asiatica, 3: Indian Culture, Calcutta, 3: Journal of the Benaras Hindu University,.
Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay,. Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society, Bangalore,. Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Razon Y Fe, Madrid, The Indian Historical Quarterly, Journal of Bombay University, 7: RailwayAnnual, Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic. Les Ciencias, 4: In, S. Katre and P. Gode, eds. Denison Ross. The New. Ampurias, 1: Broteria, Lisboa, Estudios Biblicos, Madrid, 1: Mukerjee Felicitation Volume. Allahabad, Estudios Biblicos, Estudiios Biblicos, Morales ed.
Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay, 8 2 : Edited by Bernard Anderson et al.
The Indian Historical Quarterly, Calcutta, Le Mans. History of Religions — Criminal gods and demon devotees: essays on the guardians of popular Hinduism. Albany, N. Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Abhand- lungen der Geistes- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Archaologische Mitteilungen aus Irann. Die Schrift der Elamer. In: Hausmann South Asian Languages Analysis 1: SLS 12 2 : Another look at the evidence.
SLS 14 1 : The ethnic composition of the population of Dilmun. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies Comparative Studies in Society and History Ein Entzifferungsversuch. Praha: Monographic Archivu Orientalniho, 3: Prague: Prague University. Prague: Verlag Melantrich. Translation by Madeline David of B. Hrozny Paris: Payot.
This is not a surprise since Afghanistan has been frequently occupied by various hordes of invaders and migrants through its history. Highly important commercial exchanges were normally routed through thc Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. Though this epic and most explicitly its section known as the Bhagavad Gita rejects the extremist non-violence propagated by Mahatma Gandhi and also by the wavering Arjuna before the decisive battle, Krishna's exhortation to fight comes only after every peaceful means of appeasing or reconciling the enemy has been tried, whence the Hindu dictum Ahimsa paramo dharma , "non-violence is the highest religious duty". Here too, I suggest that chronology is all-important. Just because people know a land, does not prove that they have migrated from that land. Father H.
Prague: Orient. Translation by J.
Procjaska of B. Prague: Artia. New York: Viking Penguin Books. Opyt sravneniya nos- traticheskikh yazykov semito-khamitskij, kartvelskij, indoevropejskij, uraPskij, dravidskij, altajskij , Hit, Moscow. In the image of man: the Indian perception of the universe through years of painting and sculpture. London The dawn of trade: camelian from India to Mesopotamia in the third millennium. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India: Studies in the archaeology of India and Pakistan.
The Harappan Civilization: an early state. In: Jacobson a: In, C.
Sinha, ed. In: Lai and Gupta Analysis of an architectural structure. Mohenjo-daro - a city on the Indus. Save Mohenjo-daro! Paper on the evolution of Mohenjo-daro. Aachen and Rome. Mohenjo-Daro: data collection, 1: Fieldbooks and concordance of HR area. Mainz: Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften. Poona: Akhil. In: L 'Archeologie de la Bactriane ancienne: Continuity and change in the north Kachi plain Baluchistan, Pakistan at the beginning of the second millennium BC. The Indian world. A prehistoric elite burial in Quetta. NBS 4: In: Les Cites oubliees de Tlndus: Excavations at Nausharo: PA Mehrgarh: its place in the development of ancient cultures in Pakistan.
In, Herbert Hartel, ed. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag: Pakistan Archaeology, Scientific American, 2 : Anekanta, 10 : The earthen drum: an introduction to the ritual arts of rural India. Journal of the Biharand Orissa Research Society, 5: The Indian Antiquary, Jenner, P. Thompson and S. Starosta eds.
http://bluetangent.org/regional-economic-outlook-april-2007-sub-saharan-african.php London: George. Iranica Antigua 9: In: Ethnic problems: Geschichte der Archaologie in Sibirien und im asiati- schen Steppenraum. The origins of Chinese civilization: Soviet views.